1. This article concludes that _____.
The editorial recommends that _____.
2. To support his claim the author points out that ______. The letter also cites a survey in which ________.
To justify this conclusion, the author cites _____.
3. However, careful scrutiny/consideration of the argument/evidence/thesefacts reveals
+ various statistical and other logical problems, which render it unconvincing.
That it lends no credible support to the claim.
This argument is logically flawed in several critical points.
That they fail to justify the author’s conclusion.
I find this argument logically unconvincing in three critical respects.
1. 저자는 ~라고 가정하고 있다.
The author unfairly assumes that_____/ takes that______ for granted
The author is on the assumption/assuming/supposing that______.
The author bases/grounds the arguments on the assumption that______.
2. 저자의 주장은 ~라는 잘못된 가정에 근거하고 있다.
The author’s claim is based on
The author bases his argument on
The author finds his reason on
The arguement relies on
+ a series of unfounded/groundless/unsubstantiated assumptions
(, which render it unconvincing as it stands)
an assumption from an unreliable source
The author provides some fallacious ground/basis/foundations
3. 그러나 이런 가정/주장은 잘못된 것이다.
Yet the argument fails to substantiate this assumption.
The author fails to provide any evidence to support his claim
to substantiate this assumption.
However, the author provides no evidence that this is the case.
The argument concludes without adequate evidence that______
The argument is not well-supported.
The scant evidence the author cites proves nothing about____.
4. 그것이 사실이라고 하더라도
(Even when) Granting that it is so,
Put the case that the author’s assumption is right,
Even if I were to concede that _____,
5. ~일 수도 있다.
Lacking evidence to confirm this assumption, it is entirely/equally possible that____
This is not necessarily the case. Perhaps some other (environmental) factor was instead the cause.
Common sense informs me that _____.
(두가지 다른 경우 제시후) Either scenario, if true, would serve to weaken the author’s claim rather than support it.
6. 이럴 경우에
To the extent that this is the case,
7. 저자는 ~를 간과하고 있다.
The author overlooks other possible reasons for___
8. 마무리 문장
Without considering and ruling out other possible reasons/scenarios,
Unless the author provides sufficient evidence to substantiate this assumption, Without better evidence about that,
+ the author cannot convince me.
the argument is vulnerable to criticism.
the author’s claim still remain unconvincing.
The author cannot justify his conclusion that_____.
The author cannot justifiably rely on _____ to draw any conclusions about _____.
Since the author has failed to rule out other possible explanations, I remain unconvinced based on this evidence that_____.
1. In conclusion, the author’s claim that_____ is not well supported.
In sum, as it stands the argument is unconvincing/unpersuasive.
2. To convince me that ______, the author must provide clear (statistical) evidence that _______.
To strengthen/bolster it, the author must provide strong/specific evidences that ____. The author also must rule out all other possible explanations for ___.
3. To better evaluate/assess the recommendation/claim, I would need more information about_____.
1. 통계에 문제가 있다.
The statistical reliability of _____ is questionable.
The series of problems with the argument arise from the scant statistical information on which it relies.
The survey that the argument cites is potentially problematic in some respects.
2. 표본 숫자
The number of respondents/participants might constitute an insufficiently small
sample to draw any reliable conclusion about_____.
The author provides no information about the number of respondents or their
occupational or residential profiles.
The smaller the sample, the greater the possibility for biased results, and the less
reliable the survey.
The smaller the range, the less reliable any general conclusions drawn from the
The sample might be unrepresentative of_____
We are not informed whether the survey’s respondents were representative of the
overall population of ______.
The author unfairly assumes the nationwide/general tendency applies specifically
Lacking evidence that____ reflects this general tendency, it is entirely possible
It is doubtful whether this single example is sufficient to draw a general conclusion about the reason _____. Common sense tells me that it is impossible to generalize a worldwide/nationwide phenomenon about _____ based on only one specific location’s example because the difference in _________ do not allow such a generalization. Thus, without additional and sufficient examples from diverse regions, the author cannot justifiably draw any firm conclusion on worldwide/nationwide phenomenon about _____.
The single example is insufficient to draw any general conclusion about the reason for a worldwide/national ______. It is entirely possible that the cause-and-effect relationship in (local) are not typical of the world/nation in general. Without additional samples from diverse geographic locations, I cannot accept the author’s sweeping generalization about _____.
The author assumes that because the two things are similar in certain respects they are similar in all respects.
The mere fact that _____ hardly suffices to prove _____.
proves nothing about _____.
proves little in itself about _____.
Provides little support to the author’s claim that _____.
The argument suffers from ‘either-or’ reasoning.
The author relies on ‘either-or’ inference.
[다른 해결책 존재 가능]
The author unfairly infers that the proposed course of action is the only means of achieving the desired result. The letter’s author overlooks other possible means of ensuring that _____. Without ruling out alternative means of achieving the same goal, the author cannot convince me that the proposed course of action is needed.
간과하다 fail to notice, overlook, miss, pass over, lose sight of an important fact
표면적으로 ostensibly, On the surface, at first sight/glance
분명히 admittedly, no doubt/doubtless/without a doubt/undoubtedly, it is needless to say
타당하다 proper, appropriate, adequate, valid, sound, reasonable, fit, apposite, pertinent
그럴듯한 근거 plausible/ specious ground
성급한 결론 hasty/ impatient/ impetuous/ rash conclusion
동의하다 agree with, consent to, assent to, approve of
야기하다 raise, create, cause, make, give rise to, stir up, bring about
직면하다 face, confront, meet face with, come against a trouble, be on the point of