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저장하였습니다.

INTRO

 

1.    This article concludes that _____.

The editorial recommends that _____.

2.    To support his claim the author points out that ______. The letter also cites a survey in which ________.

To justify this conclusion, the author cites _____.

3.    However, careful scrutiny/consideration of the argument/evidence/thesefacts reveals

+ various statistical and other logical problems, which render it unconvincing.

That it lends no credible support to the claim.

This argument is logically flawed in several critical points.

That they fail to justify the author’s conclusion.

       I find this argument logically unconvincing in three critical respects.

 

BODY

 

1.    저자는 ~라고 가정하고 있다.

The author unfairly assumes that_____/ takes that______ for granted

The author is on the assumption/assuming/supposing that______.

The author bases/grounds the arguments on the assumption that______.

 

2.    저자의 주장은 ~라는 잘못된 가정에 근거하고 있다.

The author’s claim is based on

The author bases his argument on  

The author finds his reason on

The arguement relies on

   + a series of unfounded/groundless/unsubstantiated assumptions  

(, which render it unconvincing as it stands)              

         an assumption from an unreliable source

 

The author provides some fallacious ground/basis/foundations

 

3.    그러나 이런 가정/주장은 잘못된 것이다.

Yet the argument fails to substantiate this assumption.

The author fails to provide any evidence to support his claim

to substantiate this assumption.

However, the author provides no evidence that this is the case.

The argument concludes without adequate evidence that______

The argument is not well-supported.

 

The scant evidence the author cites proves nothing about____.

 

4.    그것이 사실이라고 하더라도

(Even when) Granting that it is so,

Put the case that the author’s assumption is right,

Even if I were to concede that _____,

 

5.    ~ 수도 있다.

Lacking evidence to confirm this assumption, it is entirely/equally possible that____

This is not necessarily the case. Perhaps some other (environmental) factor was instead the cause.

Common sense informs me that _____.

(두가지 다른 경우 제시후) Either scenario, if true, would serve to weaken the author’s claim rather than support it.

 

6.    이럴 경우에

To the extent that this is the case,

 

7.    저자는 ~ 간과하고 있다.

The author overlooks other possible reasons for___

 

8.    마무리 문장

Without considering and ruling out other possible reasons/scenarios,

Unless the author provides sufficient evidence to substantiate this assumption, Without better evidence about that,

+ the author cannot convince me.

the argument is vulnerable to criticism. 

the author’s claim still remain unconvincing.

The author cannot justify his conclusion that_____.

The author cannot justifiably rely on _____ to draw any conclusions about _____.

 

Since the author has failed to rule out other possible explanations, I remain unconvinced based on this evidence that_____.

 

 

CONCLUSION

 

1.    In conclusion, the author’s claim that_____ is not well supported.

In sum, as it stands the argument is unconvincing/unpersuasive.

2.    To convince me that ______, the author must provide clear (statistical) evidence that _______.

To strengthen/bolster it, the author must provide strong/specific evidences that ____. The author also must rule out all other possible explanations for ___.

3.    To better evaluate/assess the recommendation/claim, I would need more information about_____.

 

 

 

 

[Survey, Statistics]

 

1. 통계에 문제가 있다.

The statistical reliability of _____ is questionable.

The series of problems with the argument arise from the scant statistical information on which it relies.

The survey that the argument cites is potentially problematic in some respects.

 

2. 표본 숫자

   The number of respondents/participants might constitute an insufficiently small

 sample to draw any reliable conclusion about_____.

 The author provides no information about the number of respondents or their

 occupational or residential profiles.

       The smaller the sample, the greater the possibility for biased results, and the less

 reliable the survey.

The smaller the range, the less reliable any general conclusions drawn from the

survey.

 

3.  대표성

   The sample might be unrepresentative of_____

   We are not informed whether the survey’s respondents were representative of the

 overall population of ______.

   The author unfairly assumes the nationwide/general tendency applies specifically

 to____

Lacking evidence that____ reflects this general tendency, it is entirely possible

 that____

 

 

[일반화의 오류]

 

It is doubtful whether this single example is sufficient to draw a general conclusion about the reason _____. Common sense tells me that it is impossible to generalize a worldwide/nationwide phenomenon about _____ based on only one specific location’s example because the difference in _________ do not allow such a generalization. Thus, without additional and sufficient examples from diverse regions, the author cannot justifiably draw any firm conclusion on worldwide/nationwide phenomenon about _____.

 

The single example is insufficient to draw any general conclusion about the reason for a worldwide/national ______. It is entirely possible that the cause-and-effect relationship in (local) are not typical of the world/nation in general. Without additional samples from diverse geographic locations, I cannot accept the author’s sweeping generalization about _____.

 

The author assumes that because the two things are similar in certain respects they are similar in all respects.

 

[Mere fact]

 

The mere fact that _____ hardly suffices to prove _____.

proves nothing about _____.

                           proves little in itself about _____.

                           Provides little support to the author’s claim that _____.

 

 

[흑백논리]

 

The argument suffers from ‘either-or’ reasoning.

The author relies on ‘either-or’ inference.

 

[다른 해결책 존재 가능]

 

The author unfairly infers that the proposed course of action is the only means of achieving the desired result. The letter’s author overlooks other possible means of ensuring that _____. Without ruling out alternative means of achieving the same goal, the author cannot convince me that the proposed course of action is needed.

 

 

 

WORDS

간과하다     fail to notice,  overlook,  miss,  pass over,  lose sight of an important fact

표면적으로   ostensibly,  On the surface,  at first sight/glance

분명히     admittedly, no doubt/doubtless/without a doubt/undoubtedly, it is needless to say

타당하다    proper, appropriate, adequate, valid, sound, reasonable, fit, apposite, pertinent

그럴듯한 근거   plausible/ specious ground

성급한 결론   hasty/ impatient/ impetuous/ rash conclusion

동의하다      agree with, consent to, assent to, approve of

야기하다      raise, create, cause, make, give rise to, stir up, bring about

직면하다      face, confront, meet face with, come against a trouble, be on the point of

 

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